Introduction to 5G

 

What is 5G?

The continuous traffic growth and service demands on the 4G systems, such as, real time streaming, downloading, gaming, smart applications, multiple devices per consumer, autonomous self driving cars, cloudification of systems and much more. The MNO must handle this demand all the whilst ensuring QoS and experience to the end user.

To fulfill these demands the fifth generation of cellular networks was introduced. 5G promises to allow more connections, much higher throughputs, and lower latency.

Figure from https://www.digi.com/blog/post/what-is-5g-part-1-evolution-and-the-next-generatio

What is 5G capable of?

The promise 5G brings is

 

  • Low Latency (1ms),

    • Ideal for mission critical communications, MEC applications, automatous cars and any strict real time communications

  • Connection Density (1million devices per km/sq)

    • Ideal for high connection density deployments such as smart cities, where a massive number of IOT devices will be prominent

  • Peak Data Rates (20 Gbit/s)

    • Ideal for interactive streaming, AR applications.

This diagram below describes the 5G usage scenarios using the main 3 use cases as defined by IMT-2020

  • eMBB, Enhanced Mobile Broadband

  • URLLC, Ultra Reliable Low Latency Communications

  • mMTC, Massive Machine Type Communications

 

All in all, 5G will do much more than significantly improve your network speed. It will allow billions of connected devices gathering and sharing information in real time. It can allow data to be shared with very low, or almost without latency.

  Beyond being able to download a full-length HD movie to your phone in seconds (even from a crowded stadium), 5G is really about connecting things everywhere – reliably, without lag – so people can measure, understand and manage things in real time.

  

Applications

Safety and Sustainability

  • Smarter electricity grids

  • More connected vehicles preventing road collisions and enabling quicker access for emergency services to accidents

  • Connected sensors that detect and provide early warnings of natural disasters

  • Remote access to doctors, specialists for patient diagnosis and care

Transforming Industries

  • Production lines automatically reacting to supply and demand

  • Logistic networks autonomously routing goods based on real-world conditions

  • Full traceability down to the individual item at warehouses and ports

  • Remote access to powerful robots and vehicles for improved safety in risky environments

  • Increased use of IoT in agriculture to efficiently grow crops

  • Advanced asset tracking, remote control, predictive maintenance and sensor-enabled processes across multiple sectors

Elevating visual experiences

  • Greater realism in VR, AR and extended reality (XR) with lighter devices

  • Delivering sensory experiences, like touch, through devices

  • Stable and reliable connectivity in crowded spaces

  • New angles and interactions for live and remote event spectators

 

5G Frequencies

 

5G spectrum spans across 0.4 GHz to 100 GHz, low, mid and high band, as such most of the frequencies are in use today and mobile operators are making use of this by DSS, reframing the spectrum they own to launch 5G.

5G frequencies are split into FR1 (4.1 GHz to 7.125 GHz) and FR2 (24.25 GHz to 52.6 GHz)

There have been multiple rounds of spectrum auctions for 5G and currently below is the global status

 

Frequency (per 3GPP)

FR1 Bands Below 7.1 GHz

 

Name

Uplink

Downlink

Duplexing

n1

1920 MHz – 1980 MHz

2110 MHz – 2170 MHz

FDD

n2

1850 MHz – 1910 MHz

1930 MHz – 1990 MHz

FDD

n3

1710 MHz – 1785 MHz

1805 MHz – 1880 MHz

FDD

n5

824 MHz – 849 MHz

869 MHz – 894 MHz

FDD

n7

2500 MHz – 2570 MHz

2620 MHz – 2690 MHz

FDD

n8

880 MHz – 915 MHz

925 MHz – 960 MHz

FDD

n12

699 MHz – 716 MHz

729 MHz – 746 MHz

FDD

n13

777 MHz – 787 MHz

746 MHz – 756 MHz

FDD

n14

788 MHz – 798 MHz

758 MHz – 768 MHz

FDD

n18

815 MHz – 830 MHz

860 MHz – 875 MHz

FDD

n20

832 MHz – 862 MHz

791 MHz – 821 MHz

FDD

n25

1850 MHz – 1915 MHz

1930 MHz – 1995 MHz

FDD

n26

814 MHz – 849 MHz

859 MHz – 894 MHz

FDD

n28

703 MHz – 748 MHz

758 MHz – 803 MHz

FDD

n29

N/A

717 MHz – 728 MHz

SDL

n303

2305 MHz – 2315 MHz

2350 MHz – 2360 MHz

FDD

n34

2010 MHz – 2025 MHz

2010 MHz – 2025 MHz

TDD

n3810

2570 MHz – 2620 MHz

2570 MHz – 2620 MHz

TDD

n39

1880 MHz – 1920 MHz

1880 MHz – 1920 MHz

TDD

n40

2300 MHz – 2400 MHz

2300 MHz – 2400 MHz

TDD

n41

2496 MHz – 2690 MHz

2496 MHz – 2690 MHz

TDD

n46

5150 MHz – 5925 MHz

5150 MHz – 5925 MHz

TDD13

n4711

5855 MHz – 5925 MHz

5855 MHz – 5925 MHz

TDD

n48

3550 MHz – 3700 MHz

3550 MHz – 3700 MHz

TDD

n50

1432 MHz – 1517 MHz

1432 MHz – 1517 MHz

TDD1

n51

1427 MHz – 1432 MHz

1427 MHz – 1432 MHz

TDD

n53

2483.5 MHz – 2495 MHz

2483.5 MHz – 2495 MHz

TDD

n65

1920 MHz – 2010 MHz

2110 MHz – 2200 MHz

FDD4

n66

1710 MHz – 1780 MHz

2110 MHz – 2200 MHz

FDD

n70

1695 MHz – 1710 MHz

1995 MHz – 2020 MHz

FDD

n71

663 MHz – 698 MHz

617 MHz – 652 MHz

FDD

n74

1427 MHz – 1470 MHz

1475 MHz – 1518 MHz

FDD

n75

N/A

1432 MHz – 1517 MHz

SDL

n76

N/A

1427 MHz – 1432 MHz

SDL

n7712

3300 MHz – 4200 MHz

3300 MHz – 4200 MHz

TDD

n78

3300 MHz – 3800 MHz

3300 MHz – 3800 MHz

TDD

n79

4400 MHz – 5000 MHz

4400 MHz – 5000 MHz

TDD

n80

1710 MHz – 1785 MHz

N/A

SUL

n81

880 MHz – 915 MHz

N/A

SUL

n82

832 MHz – 862 MHz

N/A

SUL

n83

703 MHz – 748 MHz

N/A

SUL

n84

1920 MHz – 1980 MHz

N/A

SUL

n86

1710 MHz – 1780 MHz

N/A

SUL

n89

824 MHz – 849 MHz

N/A

SUL

n90

2496 MHz – 2690 MHz

2496 MHz – 2690 MHz

TDD5

n91

832 MHz – 862 MHz

1427 MHz – 1432 MHz

FDD9

n92

832 MHz – 862 MHz

1432 MHz – 1517 MHz

FDD9

n93

880 MHz – 915 MHz

1427 MHz – 1432 MHz

FDD9

n94

880 MHz – 915 MHz

1432 MHz – 1517 MHz

FDD9

n958

2010 MHz – 2025 MHz

N/A

SUL

n9614

5925 MHz – 7125 MHz

5925 MHz – 7125 MHz

TDD13

n9715

2300 MHz – 2400 MHz

N/A

SUL

n9815

1880 MHz – 1920 MHz

N/A

SUL

 

FR2 Bands Above 7.1 GHz

 

Name

Uplink

 

 

Downlink

 

 

Duplexing

n257

26500 MHz

29500 MHz

26500 MHz

29500 MHz

TDD

n258

24250 MHz

27500 MHz

24250 MHz

27500 MHz

TDD

n259

39500 MHz

43500 MHz

39500 MHz

43500 MHz

TDD

n260

37000 MHz

40000 MHz

37000 MHz

40000 MHz

TDD

n261

27500 MHz

28350 MHz

27500 MHz

28350 MHz

TDD

 

Bandwidths

FR1-Maximum transmission bandwidth configuration NRB

SCS (kHz)

5 MHz

10 MHz

15 MHz

20 MHz

25 MHz

30 MHz

40 MHz

50 MHz

60 MHz

70 MHz

80 MHz

90 MHz

100 MHz

 

NRB

NRB

NRB

NRB

NRB

NRB

NRB

NRB

NRB

NRB

NRB

NRB

NRB

15

25

52

79

106

133

160

216

270

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

30

11

24

38

51

65

78

106

133

162

189

217

245

273

60

N/A

11

18

24

31

38

51

65

79

93

107

121

135

 

 

 

FR2-Maximum transmission bandwidth configuration NRB

SCS (kHz)

50 MHz

100 MHz

200 MHz

400 MHz

 

NRB

NRB

NRB

NRB

60

66

132

264

N.A

120

32

66

132

264

 

Other Key Configurations

Parameter

FR1 (450 MHz-7.125 GHz)

FR2 (24.5-52.6 GHz)

Carrier Aggregation

Up to 16 Carriers

Max Number of Subcarriers

3300 (FFT 4096)

Modulation Scheme

QPSK, 16QAM, 64QAM, 256QAM; uplink also supports π/2-BPSK (only DFT-s-OFDM)

Radio Frame Length

10 ms

Subframe Length

1 ms

MIMO Scheme

Max 2 Codewords mapped to max of 8 layers in DL and max of 4 layers in UL

Duplex Mode

FDD, TDD

TDD

Access scheme

DL: CP-OFDM; UL: CP-OFDM, DFT-s-OFDM